||Birth of Aurelius Ambrosius
(Ambrosius the Elder).
||Possible association with
"Circle of Ambrose".
||Aurelius Ambrosius joins
the Roman senate.
||Most probable period in
which Aurelius Ambrosius was appointed consular
governor of Maxima Caesariensis. Best
chronological fit would be between 417-420, and
necessitate a Roman attempt to regain authority
in parts of the old British diocese. Similar
attempts were made in Armorica and northern Gaul,
at this time, with varied and intermittent
||Aurelius Ambrosius is the
official representative of Honorius to British
provincial council. "Wearing of the purple."
Possible failure of effective Roman support
during this time.
||Rise of influence and power
of Vortigern, culminating in his High-Kingship.
||Beginning of Vortigern's
High-Kingship over much of Britain. The
provincial council has decided, external factors
dictate, the need for strong, central, leadership.
Aurelius Ambrosius can offer no firm alternative.
||First use of Saxon
foederati by Vortigern.
||First visit of St. Germanus
to combat Pelagianism. The doctrine is supported
by Vortigern. Legendary assistance, by St.
Germanus, in founding of Welsh dynasties in
conjunction with Vortigern's sons. Hallelujah
||Decision of council, led by
Aurelius Ambrosius, to relocate Cunedda and
followers to parts of Wales to counter the Irish
threat. Vortigern acquiesces and assigns
Ambrosius "Dinas Emrys and all the western
lands". i.e. Ambrosius becomes the architect
for the defence of these areas. This was
motivated by the councils reluctance to depend
entirely on German mercenaries, with their
constant demands for increased provisions,
especially in an area were they would be lightly
supervised. Cunedda and his followers would be
||Birth of Aurelius Ambrosius
Aurelianus. His mother was probably of British
descent and considerably younger than Ambrosius
||Delivery of Kent to Hengist
and Horsa by Vortigern. In part for the hand of
Hengist's daughter, in part to compensate for the
British councils refusal to increase provisions
to Vortigern's Kentish foederati.
||Open rift between Ambrosius'
faction and Vortigern. Battle of Wallop. Probably
followed by a period of civil strife in eastern
and southern Britain.
||German foederati take
advantage of British unrest and openly revolt,
citing as cause, failure of British to supply
provisions. Flow of provisions may have been
reduced to nil as a consequence of British civil
||Gallic chronicles report
large sections of Britain under German control
following Saxon revolt. Communications between
Britain and Gaul disrupted.
||Probable death of Ambrosius
the Elder, "who was killed in these same
broils", i.e. the Saxon revolt. Ambrosius'
surviving family is in hiding by now.
||British resistance to
Saxons under the leadership of Vortigern's sons,
especially Vortimer and Categirn. Four major
engagements and several minor ones take place.
Categirn and Horsa are killed in the fighting.
||Second visit of St.
Germanus to Britain. By this time, Saxons are
contained in some areas by Vortimer.
||Probable death of Vortimer.
British offensive stalemates.
||British betrayal at peace
conference. Collapse of British military in east
and south of Britain. Vortigern cedes territory
to gain his freedom but, despised by all, dies
||British, lacking strong
leadership, are overwhelmed. Saxons raid from
Kent to the Severn valley. Mass migration of
British upper class to Armorica.
Aurelianus becomes involved in British affairs,
organising British resistance. During a period of
respite, many British flock to his standard. He
initiates a British counter offensive.
||Extended period of fighting
to and fro. Fortification of defensive sites and
stationing of troops by Ambrosius. Ambrosius is
recognised as High-King by much of Britain.
Assistance of the "warlike Arthur" in
the latter part of his reign, who commands the
mobile field force.
||Death of Ambrosius. His
sons rule small kingdoms in the east and south of
Britain. Arthur remains active, and may have
claimed the High-Kingship.
||Battle of Mons Badonicus.
||Maeglwn of Gwynedd claims
supremacy over British.
||Gildas writes De Excidio
et Conquestu Britanniae, Ambrosius'
grandchildren are active: "His
descendants in our day have become greatly
inferior to their grandfather's excellence."
||There is plague in Britain,
the British are much more seriously afflicted
than the Saxons.
||Death of Maeglwn of Gwynedd.
||Resumption of Saxon advance.