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(The Annals of Wales, 447-954 AD)

The Annales Cambriae (Annals of Wales) is a Latin language chronicle, dating from around AD 970, covering 533 years in time. The chronicle's starting point, the entry marked "Year 1", is believed by scholars, to be the year AD 447. It is a curious collection of obscure Welsh material, but it does contain two entries that are of interest to students of Arthurian history.

The primary text of this translation is from the Harleian manuscript, the earliest copy of the Annales Cambriae which has survived. The text enclosed within the "‡" symbols are entries which are not found in the Harleian MS, but which appear in a later version.

The oldest surviving copy of the Annals of Wales is to be found in Harleian MS 3859, bound in the same volume with Nennius' Historia Brittonum and various genealogical tracts. None of these can be reliably considered as reliable historical sources. They all seem to date to some 500 years after the fall of Rome, and include a number of historical errors and problems. Nonetheless, the Annals' two mentions of "Arthur" have led various writers to attempt to use them historically. This electronic text was created by Sheila Brynjulfson and Robert Vermaat.

447   ‡ Days as dark as night.‡ an. Dies tenebrosa sicut nox.
an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.
453   Easter altered on the Lord's Day by Pope Leo, Bishop of Rome. an. Pasca commutatur super diem dominicum cum papa Leone episcopo Romae.
454   St. Brigid is born. an.X Brigida sancta nascitur.
an. an.
457   St. Patrick goes to the Lord. an. Sanctus Patricus ad Dominium migrator.
an. an. an. an. an. an. an.XX an. an. an.
458   St. David is born in the thirtieth year after Patrick left Menevia. an. S. Dewi nascitur anno tricesimo discessum Patricii de Menevia.
468   The death of Bishop Benignus. an. Quies Benigni episcopi.
an. an. an. an. an. an.XXX an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.XL an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.L an. an. an. an. an. an.
501   Bishop Ebur rests in Christ, he was 350 years old. an. Episcopus Ebur pausat in Christo anno CCCL aetatis suae.
an. an. an.LX an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.LXX an.
516   The Battle of Badon, in which Arthur carried the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ for three days and three nights on his shoulders and the Britons were the victors. an. Bellum Badonis, in quo Arthur portavit crucem Domini nostri Jhesu Christi tribus diebus et tribus noctibus in humeros suos et Brittones victores fuerunt.
an. an. an. an.
521   St. Columba is born. The death of St. Brigid. an. Sanctus Columcille nascitur.
Quies sanctae Brigidae.
an. an. an.LXXX an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.XC an. an.
537   The battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut fell: and there was plague in Britain and Ireland. an. Gueith camlann in qua Arthur et Medraut corruerunt, et mortalitas in Brittannia et in Hibernia fuit.
an. an. an. an. an.
544   The sleep [death] of Ciaran. an. C Dormitatio Ciarani.
an. an
547   The great death [plague] in which Maelgwn, king of Gwynedd died. ‡Thus they say 'The long sleep of Maelgwn in the court of Rhos'. Then was the yellow plague.‡ an. Mortalitas magna in qua pausat Mailcun rex Genedotae.Unde dicitur, "Hir hun Wailgun en llis Ros". Tunc fuit wallwelen.
an. an. an. an. an. an. an.CX an. an. an
558   The death of Gabrán, son of Dungart. an. Gabran filius Dungart moritur.
an. an. an.
562   Columba went to Britain. an. Columcille in Brittannia exiit.
565   ‡The voyage of Gildas to Ireland.‡ an. Navigatio Gildae in Hybernia.
569   ‡The 'Synod of Victory' was held between the Britons.‡ an. Synodus Victoriae apud Brittones congragatur
570   Gildas ‡wisest of Britons‡ died. an. Gildas Britonus sapientissmus obiit.
an. an
573   The battle of Arfderydd ‡between the sons of Eliffer and Gwenddolau son of Ceidio; in which battle Gwenddolau fell; Merlin went mad.‡ an. Bellum Armterid inter filios Elifer et Guendoleu filium Keidiau; in quo bello Guendoleu cecidit; Merlinus insanus effectus est.
574   The sleep [death] of Brendan of Birr. an. CXXX Brendan Byror dormitatio.
an. an. an. an. an
580   Gwrgi and Peredur ‡sons of Elifert‡ died. an. Guurci et Peretur [filii Elifer] moritur.
an. an. an. an.
584   Battle against the Isle of Man and the burial of Daniel of the Bangors. an. CXL Bellum contra Euboniam et depositio Danielis Bancorum.
an. an. an. an.
589   The conversion of Constantine [king of Britain] to the Lord. Conversio Constantini ad Dominum.
an. an. an. an. an.CL
594   ‡Aethelbert reigned in England.‡ an. Edilbertus in Anglia rexit.
595   The death of Columba.
- The death of king Dunod ‡son of Pabo.‡
- Augustine and Mellitus converted the English to Christ.
an. Columcille moritur.
Dunaut [filius Pabo] rex moritur.
Augustinus Mellitus Anglos ad Christum convertit.
an. an. an. an. an.
601   The synod of Urbs Legionis [Chester].
Gregory died in Christ and also bishop David of Moni Iudeorum.
an. Sinodus Urbis Legion.
David episcopus Moni Judaeorum.
an. an. an.CLX an.
606   The burial of bishop Cynog. an. Depositio Cinauc episcopi.
607   The death of Aidan son of Gabrán an. Aidan map Gabran moritur.
an. an. an. an. an
612   The death of Kentigern and bishop Dyfrig. an. Conthigirni obitus et Dibric episcopi
613   The battle of Caer Legion [Chester]. And there died Selyf son of Cynan. And Iago son of Beli slept [died]. an. Gueith Cair Legion, et ibi cecidit Selim filii Cinan.
Et Jacob filii Beli dormitatio.
an.CLXX an.
616   Ceredig died. an. Ceretic obiit.
617   Edwin begins his reign. an. Etguin incipit regnare.
an. an. an. an. an. an
624   The sun is covered [eclipsed]. an. CLXXX Sol obscuratus est.
626   Edwin is baptized, and Rhun son of Urien baptized him. an. Etguin baptizatus est, et Run filius Urbgen baptizavit eum.
627   Belin dies. an. Belin moritur.
629   The beseiging of king Cadwallon in the island of Glannauc. an. Obsessio Catguollaun regis in insula Glannauc
630   Gwyddgar comes and does not return. On the Kalends of January the battle of Meigen; and there Edwin was killed with his two sons; but Cadwallon was the victor. an. Guidgar venit et non redit.
Kalendis januariis Gueith Meicen; et ibi interfectus est Etguin cum duobus filiis; Catguollaun autem victor fuit.
631   The battle of Cantscaul in which Cadwallon fell. an. Bellum Cantscaul in quo Catguollaun corruit.
632   The slaughter of the [river] Severn and the death of Idris. an. Strages Sabrinae et jugulatio Iudris.
an. an.CXC an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.
644   The battle of Cogfry in which Oswald king of the Northmen and Eawa king of the Mercians fell. an. CC Bellum Cocboy in quo Oswald rex Nordorum et Eoba rex Merciorum corruerunt.
645   The hammering of the region of Dyfed, when the monastery of David was burnt. an. Percussio Demeticae regionis, quando coenobium David incensum est.
an. an. an. an.
649   ‡Slaughter in Gwent.‡ an. Guentis strages.
650   The rising of a star. an. Ortus stellae.
an. an. an.CCX an.
656   The slaughter of Campus Gaius. an. Strages Gaii campi.
657   Penda killed. an. Pantha occisio.
658   Oswy came and took plunder. an. Osguid venit et praedam duxit.
an. an.
661   Cummine the tall died. an. Commene fota.
662   Brocmail ‡the tusked ‡ dies. an. Brocmail Escithrauc moritur.
an. CCXX
665   The first celebration of Easter among the Saxons.
The second battle of Badon.
Morgan dies.
an. Primum Pasca apud Saxones celebratur.
Bellum Badonis secundo.
Morcant moritur.
an. an. an.
669   Oswy, king of the Saxons, dies. an. Osguid rex Saxonum moritur.
an. an. an. an. an. an.CCXXX an.
676   A star of marvelous brightness was seen shining throughout the whole world. an. Stella mirae magnitudinis visa est per totum mundum lucens.
an. an. an. an. an.
682   A great plague in Britain, in which Cadwaladr son of Cadwallon dies. an. Mortalitas magna fuit in Brittania, in qua Catgualart filius Catguolaun obiit.
683   A plague ‡was‡ in Ireland. an. Mortalitas fuit in Hibernia.
684   A great earthquake in the Isle of Man. an. CCXL Terrae motus in Eubonia factus est magnus.
an. an. an. an.
689   The rain turned to blood in Britain, and ‡in Ireland‡ milk and butter turned to blood. an. Pluvia sanguinea facta est in Brittannia, et in Hybernia lac et butirum versa sunt in sanguinem.
an. an. an. an. an.CCL an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.
704   Aldfrith king of the Saxons died. The sleep of Adomnán. an.CCLX Alchfrit rex Saxonum obiit.
Dormiatio Adomnan.
an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.
714   Night was as bright as day. Pepin the elder [actually Pepin II, of Heristal], king of the Franks, died in Christ. an. CCLXX Nox lucida fuit sicut dies.
Pipinus major, rex Francorum, obiit in Christo.
an. an
717   Osred king of the Saxons dies. an. Osbrit rex Saxonum moritur
718   The consecration of the church of the archangel Michael ‡on mount Gargano.‡ an. Consecratio Michaelis archangeli in monte Gargano ecclesiae.
an. an.
721   A hot summer. Aestas torrida.
722   Beli son of Elffin dies. And the battle of Hehil among the Cornish, the battle of Garth Maelog, the battle of Pencon among the south Britons, and the Britons were the victors in those three battles. an. Beli filius Elfin moritur. Et bellum Hehil apud Cornuenses, Gueith Gartmailauc, Cat Pencon, apud dexterales Brittones, et Brittones victores fuerunt in istis tribus bellis.
an. an.CCLXXX an. an. an.
728   The battle of mount Carno. an. Bellum montis Carno.
an. an. an. an. an. an. an.CCXC
735   Bede the priest sleeps. Beda presbiter dormit.
736   Oengus king of the Picts died. Ougen rex Pictorum obiit.
an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.CCC an. an. an. an. an.
750   Battle between the Picts and the Britons, that is the battle of Mocetauc. And their king Talorgan is killed by the Britions. an. Bellum inter Pictos et Brittones, id est Gueith Mocetauc. Et rex eorum Talgarn a Brittonibus occiditur.
Teudubr filius Beli moritur.
an. an. an.
754   Rhodri king of the Britons dies. an. CCX Rotri, rex Brittonum, moritur.
an. an.
757   Ethelbald king of the Saxons dies. an. Ethwald rex Saxonum moritur.
an. an
760   A battle between the Britons and the Saxons, that is the battle of Hereford and Dyfnwal son of Tewdwr dies. an. Bellum inter Brittones et Saxones, id est Gueith Hirford et Dunnagual filius Teudubr moritur.
an. an. an. an.CCCXX an. an. an.
768   Easter is changed among the Britons ‡on the Lord's day ‡, Elfoddw, servant of God, emending it. an. Pasca commutatur apud Brittones super dominicam diem emmendante Elbodugo homine Dei.
an. an. an. an. an. an.CCCXXX
775   Ffernfael son of Ithael dies. an. Fernmail filius Judhail moitur
776   Cinaed king of the Picts dies. an. Cenioyd rex Pictorum obiit.
777   Abbot Cuthbert dies. an. Cudberth abbas moritur.
778   The devastation of the South Britons by Offa. an. Vastatio Brittonum dexteralium apud Offa.
an. an. an. an. an.
784   The devastation of Britain by Offa in the summer. an. CCCXL Vastatio Brittonum cum Offa in aestate.
an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.CCCL
796   ‡Devastation by Rheinwg son of Offa ‡ The first coming of the gentiles [Norsemen] among the southern Irish. an. Vastatio Reinuch ab Offa Primus adventus gentilium apud dexterales ad Hiberniam.
797   Offa king of the Mercians and Maredudd king of the Demetians die, and the battle of Rhuddlan. an. Offa rex Merciorum et Morgetiud rex Demetorum morte moriuntur, et bellum Rudglann.
798   Caradog king of Gwynedd is killed by the Saxons. an. Caratauc rex Guenedotae apud Saxones jugulatur.
an. an. an. an. an. an.CCCLX an. an.
807   Arthen king of Ceredigion dies. ‡Solar eclipse‡ an. Arthgen rex Cereticjaun moritur. Eclipsis solis.
808   Rhain king of the Demetians and Cadell ‡king‡ of Powys die. an. Regin rex Demetorum et Catell rex Povis moriuntur.
809   Elfoddw archbishop in the Gwynedd region went to the Lord. an. Elbodug archiepiscopus Guenedotae regione migravit ad Dominum.
810   ‡The moon covered ‡. Mynyw burnt. ‡Death of cattle in Britain.‡ an. Luna obscuratur. Combustio Miniu. Mortalitas pecorum in Brittannia.
811   Owain son of Maredudd dies. an. Eugein filius Margetiud moritur.
812   The fortress of Degannwy is struck by lightning and burnt. an. Decantorum arx ictu fulminis comburit.
813   Battle between Hywel ‡and Cynan. Hywel‡ was the victor. an.Bellum inter Higuel et Kinan. Howel victor fuit
814   There was great thunder and it caused many fires. Tryffin son of Rhain died. And Gruffydd son of Cyngen is killed by treachery by his brother Elisedd after an interval of two months. Hywel triumphed over the island of Mona and he drove Cynan from there with a great loss of his own army. an. CCCLXX Tonitruum magnum fuit et incendia multa fecit.
Trifun filius Regin moritur.
Et Griphuid filius Cincen dolosa dispensatione a fratre suo Elized post intervallum duorum mensium interficitur.
Higuel de Monia insula triumphavit et Cinan de ea expulit cum contritione magna exercitus sui.
816   Hywel was again expelled from Mona ‡by Cynan. ‡ .
Cynan the king dies.
‡Saxons invaded the mountains of Eryri and the kingdom of Rhufoniog‡.
an. Higuel de Monia expulsus est ††a Kenan.††
Cinan rex moritur.
Saxones montes Ereri et regum Roweynauc invaserunt.
817   The battle of Llan-faes. an. Gueith Lannmaes.
an. an. an. an.
818   ‡Cenwulf devastated the Dyfed region.‡ an. Ceniul regiones Demetorum vastavit.
822   The fortress of Degannwy is destroyed by the Saxons and they took the kingdom of Powys into their own control. an. Arecem Deccantorum a Saxonibus destruitur et regionem Poyis in sua potestate traxerunt.
an. an. CCCLXXX
825   Hywel dies. an Higuel moritur.
an. an. an. an. an.
831   ‡Lunar eclipse.‡ Laudent died and Sadyrnfyw Hael of Mynyw died. an. Eclipsis lunae. Laudent moritur et Saturnbiu Hail Miniu moritur.
an. an. an.CCCXC an. an. an. an. an.
840   Nobis the bishop ruled Mynyw. an. Nobis episcopus in Miniu regnavit.
842   Idwallon dies. an. Iudguollaun moritur.
844   Merfyn dies. The battle of Cetill. an. CCCC Mermin moritur. Gueith Cetill.
an. an. an.
848   The battle of Ffinnant. Ithael king of Gwent was killed by the men of Brycheiniog. an. Gueit Finnant. Judhail rex Guent a viris Broceniauc occisus est.
849   Meurig was killed by Saxons. an. Mouric occisus est a Saxonibus.
850   Cynin is killed by the gentiles. an. Cinnen a gentilibus jugulatur.
an. an.
853   Mona laid waste by black gentiles. an. Mon est vastata a gentilibus nigris.
854   Cynin king of Powys dies in Rome. an. CCCCX Cinnen rex Povis in Roma obiit.
856   Kenneth king of the Picts died. And Jonathan prince of Abergele dies. an. Cenioyth rex Pictorum moritur. Et Jonathan princeps Opergelei moritur.
an. an. an. an. an.
860   Catgueithen was expelled. an. Catgueithen expulsus est.
864   Duda laid Glywysing waste. an. CCCCXX Duta vastavit Gliuisigng.
865   Cian of Nanhyfer died. an. Cian Nant Nimer obiit.
866   The city of York was laid waste, that is the battle with the black gentiles. an. Urbs Ebrauc vastata est, id est Cat Dub Gint.
an. an
869   The battle of Bryn Onnen. an. Cat Brin Onnen.
870   The fortress of Alt Clud was broken by the gentiles. an. Arx Alt Clut a gentilibus fracta est.
871   Gwgon king of Ceredigion was drowned. an. Guoccaun mersus est, rex Cereticiaum.
873   Nobis ‡the bishop‡ and Meurig die. The battle of Bannguolou. an. Nobis episcopus et Mouric moriuntur. Gueith Bannguolou.
874   ‡Llunferth the bishop consecrated.‡ an. Llunwerth episcopus consecratur.
875   Dungarth king of Cernyw ‡that is of the Cornish‡ was drowned. an. Dungarth rex Cerniu, id est Cornubiae, mersus est.
876   The battle of Sunday in Mona. an. Gueith Diu Sul in Mon.
877   Rhodri and his son Gwriad is killed by the Saxons. an. Rotri et filius ejus Guriat a Saxoonibus jugulatur.
878   Aed son of Neill dies. an. Aed map Neill moritur.
880   The battle of Conwy. Vengeance for Rhodri at God's hand. ‡The battle of Cynan.‡ an. Gueit Conguoy. Digal Rotri a Deo. Gueit Conani.
882   Catgueithen died. an. Catguethin obiit.
an. an. CCCXL
885   Hywel died in Rome. an. Higuel in Roma defunctus est.
887   Cerball died. an. Cerball defunctus est.
889   Suibne the wisest of the Irish died. an. Subin Scottorum sapientissimus obiit.
892   Hyfaidd dies. an. Himeyd moritur.
894   Anarawd came with the Angles and laid waste Ceredigion and Ystrad Tywi. an. CCCCL Anaraut cum Anglis venit vastare Cereticiaun et Strati Tiui.
895   The Northmen came and laid waste Lloegr and Bycheiniog and Gwent and Gwynllywiog. an. Nordmani venerunt et vastaverunt Loycr et Bricheniauc et Guent et Guinnliguiauc.
an. an. an. an.
896   ‡Bread failed in Ireland. Vermin like moles with two teeth fell from the air and ate everything up; they were driven out by fasting and prayer.‡ an. Panis in Hibernia defecit. Vermes de aere ceciderunt talpae smiles cum duobus dentibus qui totam comederunt; qui ejecti sunt jejunio et oratione.
898   ‡Athelstan king of the Saxons died.‡ an. Elstan rex Saxonum obiit.
900   Alfred king of the Gewissi dies. an. Albrit rex Giuoys moritur.
902   Igmund came to Mona and took Maes Osfeilion. an. Igmunt in insula Mon venit tenuit Maes Osmeliaun
903   ‡Merfyn son of Rhodri died and ‡ Llywarch son of Hyfaidd dies. an. Merwyn filius Rodri obiit et Loumarch filius Himeid moritur.
904   Rhodri ‡sone of Hyfaidd ‡ was beheaded in Arwystli. an. CCCCLX Rostri filius Heweid decollatus est in Arguistli.
906   The battle of Dinmeir and Mynyw was broken. an. Gueith Dinmeir et Miniu fracta est.
907   ‡Bishop ‡ Gorchywyl dies ‡ and king Cormac‡. an. Guorchiguil episcopus moritur et Cormuc rex.
908   ‡Bishop ‡ Asser died. an. Asser episcopus defunctus est.
909   King Cadell son of Rhodri dies. an. Catell filius Rodri rex moritur.
an. an. an.
913   Ohter comes ‡to Britain‡. an. Otter venit in Britanniam.
915   Anarawd king ‡of the Britons‡ dies. an. Anaraut rex Britonum moritur.
917   Queen Aethelflaed died. an. Aelfled regina obiit.
919   King Clydog was killed. an. Clitauc rex occisus est.
921   The battle of Dinas Newydd. an. Gueith Dinas Neguid.
an. an. an.CCCCLXXX an. an. an.
928   Hywel journeyed to Rome. ‡Helen died.‡ an. Higuel rex perrexit ad Romam. Helena obiit.
an. an. an. an. an. an.CCCCXC an. an. an.
935   ‡Gruffydd son of Owain died.‡ an. Grifinus filius Oweyn obiit.
938   The battle of Brune. an. Bellum Brune.
939   Hyfaidd son of Clydog, and Meurig, died. an. Himeid filius Clitauc et Mouric moritur..
941   Aethelstan ‡king of the Saxons‡ died. an. Aedelstan rex Saxonum moritur.
942   King Afloeg dies. an. Abloye rex moritur.
943   Cadell son of Arthfael was poisoned. And Idwal ‡son of Rhodri ‡ and his son Elisedd are killed by the Saxons. an. Catel filius Artmail veneno moritur.
Et Iudgual filius Rodri et filius ejus Elized a saxonibus occiduntur.
944   Llunferth bishop in Mynyw died. an. D Lunberth episcopus in Miniu obiit.
945   ‡Bishop Morlais died.‡ an. Morleis episcopus obiit.
946   Cyngen son of Elisedd was poisoned. And Eneuris bishop in Mynyw died. And strathclyde was laid wasted by the Saxons. an. Cincenn filius Elized veneno periit.
Et Eneuris episcopus Miniu obiit.
Et Strat Clut vastata est a Saxonibus.
947   Edmund king of the Saxons was killed. an. Eadmund rex Saxonum jugulatus est.
an. an.
950   Hywel king of the Britons ‡called the Good‡ died. an. Higuel rex Brittonum scilicet Bonus obiit.
951   And Cadwgan son of Owain is killed by the Saxons.
And the battle of Carno ‡between the sons of Hywel and the sons of Idwal‡.
an. Et Catguocaun filius Ovein a Saxonibus jugulatur.
Et bellum Carno inter filios Hoeli et filios Idwal.
an. an.
952   ‡Iago and Idwal the sons of Idwal laid Dyfed waste.‡ an. Iago et Idwal filii Idwal vastaverunt Dewe.
954   Rhodri son of Hywel dies. an. DX Rotri, filius Higuel, moritor.
an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.DXX an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an. an.DXXX an. an. an.


  • Ingram, James, translator. The Annales Cambriae. London: Everyman Press, 1912.

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