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  Vortigern Studies > Vortigern > The Family of Vortigern > Pedigrees (3)

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The Family of Vortigern
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The House of Vortigern - Pedigrees of mid- & southern Wales
Robert Vermaat

Diagram 3: Vortigern and his place in the Pedigrees of mid- & southern Wales - Dyfed, Glywysing, Morgannwg, Gwent, Erging, Built, Gwrtheyrnion.

The colour scheme attempts to show the different collections of pedigrees, such as the Harleian pedigrees and the Jesus College MSS. White gaps show similarities between pedigrees.

Harleian 3859.2


ABT 18a


Jesus College MS 20.12,13


Life of St. Cadoc 46b
(c. 1100)

Harleian 3859.28


Harleian 3859.29


Jesus College MS 20.9


ABT 15



Bonedd y Saint 44, 45, 51
(c. 1140)
and Vita S. Tathei
(c. 1130)
Book of Llandaff


ABT 9b




Hanes Gruffud
ap Cynan.2

(c. 1250)

Dyfed Dyfed Dyfed Glywysing Glywysing Gwent Morgannwg Morgannwg Gwent Erging      
Constantius     Anna                  
Constantinus   Constantinus Beli                  
Constans     Aballach                  
Pincr Misser   Maximianus Baallad                  
Stater Maxen w. Maxen w. Oudolenn                  
  Kustenennin Custennin Eudos                  
Eliud Elynt Miser Ebiud               Anna  
Ebiud Ebynt Ewein Outigirun             Beli Mawr Belim Beli Mawr
Protector     Oudicant             Aflech Amalech Aflech
Protec   Prwtech Ritigirn             Avallach Auallach Avallach
Maxen w.     Rimetel             Enddolev Eudoleu Eudolen
Dimet Dyved   Grat             Endos Eudos Eudos
Nimet Nyfedd   Urban             Eneid Elud Enid
Clydwyn Gletwin   Teilpuill             Endeyrn Eudegern Eudygant
  Gwledyr   Teuhuant             Endigant Eudegan Eudeyrn
  Ewain   Tecmant             Deheuwaint Deheuwynt  
  Kyngar Kyngar Guotepauc             Rydeyrn Rittegyrn Rideyrn
  Ewain Ewein Coilhen         .   Gwrtheyrn g Gorthegyrnn Riuedel
  Kyndeyrn v Cyndr bnd. Guorgust             Kadeyrn Gortheyrn Grad
Clodri Ewain v Ewein vr. Merchiaun             Rudduedel v.   Urban
Tryffin Tryffin Tryphun Cinmarch         Ynyr Gwent Ynyr Gwent Brydw Categyrn Deyeweint
Agricola Aergul Llawir Aircol lawhir Henninni     Caradoc Vr.   Caradoc Vr. Caradoc Vr. Pasgen   Tecvan gl.
  Erbin Erbin Meuric     Meuric Meurig Meuric Meuric Kadell d. Kadell drynlluc Coel godeb.
Vorteporix protector Gwrthefyr Gwrdeber Erbic     Erbic Erbic   Erbig Gwynan Tegit Keneu
Cyngar Kyngar Kyngar Yrb     Erb Yrb   Erb Gwylawr Gwynlliw Gorwst
Peter Pedyr Peder Idnerh     Nynnyaw Nynyaw   Pebiaw Byordderch Bugi Meirchyaun
Arthur Arthur Arthur Teithfallt     Llywarch Teithfallt   Cynfyn Bywyn Beuno Elidir
Nowy Nowy Nennue Teudiric Teudubric   Thewdric Teudric   Gwrgan Gwernen   Llewarch h.
Gwlyddien Gwlyddien Eleothen   Mouric   Meuric Mevric   Onbrawst Kaduarch    
Cathen Kathen Cathen   Atroys   Adroes Athrawes   Athrwys Ymyr    
Cadwgan Kadwgon Gwygawn   Morcant Morcant Morgant Morgan   Morgan Tudur    
Rhain Rhain Rein   Iudhail Iudhail Nud Hael Ithel   Ithel Dingad    
Tewdwr Tewdos Teudos     Ris Rees Rrys     Riwallawn    
  Maredudd Maredud   Fernmail Brocmail Brochuael Brochwel   Fernmail Kynwric    
  Ewein Ceingar     Guriat Gwryat Gwriad     Hwua    
  Tangwystyl Arthuael   Atroys Artmail Ar[th]uael Arthavael     Yngharad    
  Hyfeidd Rees   Iudhail Mouric Rees Rrys     Ednyved v.    
  Llywarch Hoel     Brocmail Howel Howel          
  Elen Eweint       Eweint Ywain          
  Iwein Morgant       Morgant Morgan m.          
    This page attempts to show the position of Vortigern in the several versions of the pedigrees of his own territories and that of his neighbours, from the Roman period up to the 10th century. Shown here are the sometimes legendary claims, the many existing versions, the impossible generation-legnths when compared with other pedigrees, but also possible answers to the development of the early British kingdoms.

The sources are coloured, so that you can recognise the corresponding ones (e.g. all Jesus College MS) more easily. I have given all corresponding names a transparent background, so that it is easier to recognise where the pedigrees are in agreement.

These sets of pedigrees show the claims of several medieval royal houses of Wales. As can be seen by comparing them, they do not give us the answers to the questions that arise from a lack of sources. They are no absolute king-lists, but only the claims from several families to such a kingship; there is no guarantee that every man in the list was ever (a) king. Neither were all these men sons of the one before them; cousins or brothers could inherit just as easily, and other families could take over in case their were no male heirs.

Some lines have far more names than others, giving some generations a far larger average lifespan than others. This is very likely due to the later interpolation of more names into the pedigree. Some of these names are mistakes due to misspelling or duplications that happen during copying. Other were inserted when a later family 'usurped' the pedigree and had their own genealogist make the past 'agree' with their own claims. Similarly, such families could insert their pedigree into the old one at a later date, thereby obliterating ancestors from the line. As we have seen from the conflict between the lines of Catigern and Cadell, such confusion can really mess up one's pedigree!

Therefore we cannot use such pedigrees as real sources without completely understanding them.


  • Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. and trans. M. Swanton, (London 1996).*
  • Bartrum, P.C.: Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts, (Cardiff 1966).*
  • Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English People, trans. L. Shirley-Price, (St Ives 1990).*
  • Bonedd y Saint, Lineage of the Saints, in: Vitae Sanctorum Britanniae et Genealogiae, ed. A.W. Wade-Evans, pp. 320-323.*
  • Bromwich, R.: The Character of the Early Welsh Tradition, in: Chadwick, Studies in Early British History, pp. 83-136.*
  • Bu'Lock, J.D.: Vortigern and the Pillar of Eliseg, in: Antiquity XXXIV,1960, pp. 49-53.*
  • Chadwick, H.M.: The Foundation of the Early British Kingdoms, in: Chadwick, Studies in Early British History, pp. 47-56.*
  • Chadwick, N.K. et al: Studies in Early British History, (Cambridge 1959).*
  • Chadwick, N.K.: A Note on Faustus and Riocatus, in: Chadwick, Studies in Early British History, pp. 254-263.*
  • Dumville, David N. (1984): Gildas and Maelgwn: problems of dating, in: Lapidge and Dumville, Gildas: New Approaches, pp. 51-60.*
  • Geoffrey of Monmouth: The Historia Regum Britanniae of Geoffrey of Monmouth, trans.R. Ellis Jones, ed. A.Griscom, (London 1929, repr. 1977).*
  • Geoffrey of Monmouth: Life of Merlin, Vita Merlini, ed. and trans. B. Clarke, (Cardiff 1973).
  • Gildas: The Ruin of Britain and other works, Latin and trans. M. Winterbottom, in: History from the Sources VII, (Old Woking 1978).*
  • Historia Brittonum - Nennius: British History and the Welsh Annals, Latin and trans. John Morris, in: History from the Sources VIII, (Chichester 1980).*
  • Miller, M.: Date-Guessing and Pedigrees, in: Studia Celtica X/XI, 1975-1976, pp. 96-109.*
  • Miller, M.: Date-Guessing and Dyfed, in: Studia Celtica XII/XIII, 1977- 1978, pp. 33-61.*
  • Ralegh Radford, C.A.: Vortigern, in: Antiquity XXXII, 1958, pp. 19-24.*
  • Vitae Sanctorum Britanniae et Genealogiae, ed. A.W. Wade-Evans, (Cardiff 1973).

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